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Alaska Department of Fish and Game


Intensive Management in Alaska
Research & Resources

We provide a list of selected relevant references below, some with active web links. Major libraries, including Alaska’s ARLIS library, are also good sources of information about predator-prey relationships.

Selected Predator-Prey References

  • Adams, L. G., and B. W. Dale. 1998. Reproductive performance of female Alaskan caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:1184–1195.
  • Adams, L. G., F. J. Singer, and B. W. Dale. 1995. Caribou calf mortality in Denali National Park, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 59:584–594. (PDF file 327 K)
  • Adams, L. G., R. O. Stephenson, B. W. Dale, R. T. Ahgook, and D. J. Demma. 2008. Population dynamics and harvest characteristics of wolves in the central Brooks Range, Alaska. Wildlife Monographs 170. (PDF file 545 K)
  • Ballard, W. B. 1992. Bear predation on moose: a review of recent North American studies and their management implications. Alces Supplement 1:162–176. (PDF file 444 K)
  • Ballard, W. B., and D. G. Larsen. 1987. Implications of predator–prey relationships to moose management. Swedish Wildlife Research Supplement 1:581–602. (PDF file 359 K)
  • Ballard, W. B., P. J. MacQuarrie, A. W. Franzmann, and P. R. Krausman. 1996. Effects of winter in physical condition of moose in south-central Alaska. Alces 32:51–59.
  • Ballard, W. B., and S. D. Miller. 1990. Effects of reducing brown bear density on moose calf survival in southcentral Alaska. Alces 26:9–13. (PDF file 198 K)
  • Ballard, W. B., T. H. Spraker, and K. P. Taylor. 1981. Causes of neonatal moose calf mortality in south central Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 45:335–342. (PDF file 241 K)
  • Ballard, W. B, and V. Van Ballenberghe. 1998. Predator–prey relationships. Pages 247–272 in A. W. Franzmann and C. C. Schwartz, editors. Ecology and management of the North American moose. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Ballard, W. B., J. S. Whitman, and C. L. Gardner. 1987. Ecology of an exploited wolf population in south-central Alaska. Wildlife Monographs 98:1–54.
  • Ballard, W. B., J. S. Whitman, and D. J. Reed. 1991. Population dynamics of moose in southcentral Alaska. Wildlife Monographs 114:1–49. (PDF file 1,283 K)
  • Bangs, E. E., T. N. Bailey, and M. F. Portner. 1989. Survival rates of adult cow moose on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:557–563.
  • Berger, J., J. E. Swenson, and I.-L. Persson (2001) Recolonizing carnivores and naïve prey: conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions. Science 291: 1036-1039.
  • Bertram, M. R., and M. T. Vivion. 2002. Moose mortality in eastern Interior Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:747–756. (PDF file 375 K)
  • Bertram, M. R., and M. T. Vivion. 2002. Black bear monitoring in eastern interior Alaska. Ursus 13:69–77.
  • Bishop, R. H., and R. A. Rausch. 1974. Moose population fluctuations in Alaska, 1950–1972. Naturaliste Canadien 101:559–593.
  • Boertje, R. D., and C. L. Gardner. 1999. Reducing mortality on the Fortymile Caribou Herd. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Performance Report. Grant W-27-2. Study 3.43. Juneau, Alaska. (PDF file 285 K)
  • Boertje, R. D., and C. L. Gardner. 2000. The Fortymile caribou herd: novel proposed management and relevant biology, 1992–1997. Rangifer, Special Issue 12:17–37. (PDF file 512 K)
  • Boertje, R. D., and C. L. Gardner. 2000. Reducing mortality on the Fortymile Caribou Herd. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Performance Report. Grant W-27-3. Study 3.43. Juneau, Alaska. (PDF file 286 K)
  • Boertje, R. D., and C. L. Gardner. 2001. Reducing mortality on the Fortymile Caribou Herd. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Performance Report. Grant W-27-4. Study 3.43. Juneau, Alaska. (PDF file 108 K)
  • Boertje, R. D., C. L. Gardner, K. A. Kellie, and B. D. Taras. 2012. (PDF 7,270 kB) Fortymile caribou herd: Increasing numbers, declining nutrition, and expanding range. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Wildlife Technical Bulletin 14, ADF&G/DWC/WTB-2012-14. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Boertje, R. D., W. C. Gasaway, D. V. Grangaard, and D. G. Kelleyhouse. 1988. Predation on moose and caribou by radiocollared grizzly bears in east-central Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66:2492–2499.
  • Boertje, R. D., W. C. Gasaway, D. V. Grangaard, D. G. Kelleyhouse, and R. O. Stephenson. 1987. Factors limiting moose population growth in Subunit 20E. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Progress Report. Project W 22 5. Job 1.37R. Juneau, USA.
  • Boertje, R. D., D. V. Grangaard, P. Valkenburg, and S. D. DuBois. 1993. Testing socially acceptable methods of managing predation -- reducing predation on caribou and moose neonates by diversionary feeding of predators, Macomb Plateau, 1990–93. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Final Report. Grants W-23-3, W-23-4, W-23-5, and W-24-1. Project 1.40. Juneau, Alaska, USA. (PDF file 1,625 K)
  • Boertje, R. D., M. A. Keech, and T. F. Paragi. 2010. (PDF 1,813 kB) Science and values influencing predator control for Alaska moose management. Journal of Wildlife Management 74(5):917–928.
  • Boertje, R. D., M. A. Keech, D. D. Young, K. A. Kellie, and C. T. Seaton. 2009. Managing for elevated yield of moose in Interior Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 73:in press. (PDF file 192 K)
  • Boertje, R. D., D. G. Kelleyhouse, and R. D. Hayes. 1995. Methods for reducing natural predation on moose in Alaska and Yukon: an evaluation. Pages 505–513 in L. N. Carbyn, S. H. Fritts, and D. R. Seip, editors. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Canadian Circumpolar Institute Occasional Publication 35, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. (PDF file 4,720 K)
  • Boertje, R. D., K. A. Kellie, C. T. Seaton, M. A. Keech, D. D. Young, B. W. Dale, L. G. Adams, and A. R. Aderman. 2007. Ranking Alaska moose nutrition: signals to begin liberal antlerless harvests. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1494–1506. (PDF file 366 K)
  • Boertje. R. D., C. T. Seaton, D. D. Young, M. A. Keech, and B. W. Dale. 2000. Factors limiting moose at high densities in Unit 20A. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Performance Report. Grant W 27-3. Project 1.51. Juneau, Alaska, USA. (PDF file 246 K)
  • Boertje, R. D., and R. O. Stephenson. 1992. Effects of ungulate availability on wolf reproductive potential in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:2441–2443.
  • Boertje, R. D., P. Valkenburg, and M. E. McNay. 1996. Increases in moose, caribou, and wolves following wolf control in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 60:474–489. (PDF file 382 K)
  • Boutin, S. 1992. Predation and moose population dynamics: a critique. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:116–127.
  • Brainerd, S. M., Andrén, H., Bangs, E. E., Bradley, E., Fontaine, J., Hall, Jr., W. H., Iliopoulos, Y., Jiminez, M., Jozwiak, E., Liberg, O., Mack, C., Meier, T., Niemeyer, C., Pedersen, H. C., Sand, H., Schultz, R. N, Smith, D. W., Wabakken, P., Wydeven, A.P. 2008. The effects of breeder loss on wolves. Journal of Wildlife Management 72(1):89–98.
  • Caughley, G. 1970. Eruption of ungulate populations with emphasis on the Himalayan Thar in New Zealand. Ecology 51:53–70.
  • Caughley, G. 1976. Wildlife management and the dynamics of ungulate populations. Pages 183–246 in TH Coaker, editor. Applied biology, Volume I. Academic Press, London.
  • Caughley, G. 1979. What is this thing called carrying capacity? Pages 2–8 in MS Boyce and LD Hayden-Wing, editors. North American elk: ecology, behavior, and management. University of Wyoming Press. Laramie.
  • Caughley, G. 1981. Comments on natural regulation of ungulates (what constitutes a real wilderness?). Wildlife Society Bulletin 9:232–234.
  • Caughley, G., and A Gunn. 1993. Dynamics of large herbivores in deserts: kangaroos and caribou. Oikos 67:47–55.
  • Cederlund, G. N., and H. K. G. Sand. 1991. Population dynamics and yield of a moose population without predators. Alces 27:31–40. (PDF file 313 K)
  • Collins, G. H., M. T. Hinkes, A. R. Aderman, and J. D. Woolington. 2003. Population growth, movements, and status of the Nushagak Peninsula Caribou Herd following reintroduction, 1988–2000. Rangifer, Special Issue 14:143–151.
  • Dale, B. W., L. G. Adams, and R. T. Bowyer. 1994. Function response of wolves preying on barren-ground caribou in a multi-prey ecosystem. Journal of Animal Ecology 63:644–652.
  • Davis, J. L., and P. Valkenburg. 1985. Demography of the Delta Caribou Herd under varying rates of natural mortality and harvest by humans. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Final Report. Projects W-21-2, W-22-1, W 22-2, W-22-3, and W-22-4. Job 3.27. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Davis, J. L., P. Valkenburg, and H. V. Reynolds. 1980. Population dynamics of Alaska’s Western Arctic Caribou Herd. Pages 595–604 in E. Reimers, E. Gaare, and S. Skjenneberg, editors. Proceedings 2nd International Reindeer/Caribou Symposium, Roros, Norway. Direktoratet for Vilt og Ferskvannsfisk, Trondheim.
  • Davis, J. L., P. Valkenburg, M. E. McNay, R. M. Beasley, and V. L. Tutterrow. 1991. Demography of the Delta Caribou Herd under varying rates of natural mortality and human harvest and assessment of field techniques for acquiring demographic data. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Final Report. Projects W 22-5, W-23-1, W-23-2, and W-23-3. Job 3.33. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Eberhart, L. L., and K. W. Pitcher. 1992. A further analysis of the Nelchina caribou and wolf data. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20(4):385–395.
  • Eriksen, A., Wabakken, P., Zimmermann, B., Andreassen, H. P., Arnemo, J. M., Gundersen, H., Milner, J. M., Liberg, O., Linnell, J. D. C., Pedersen, H. C., Sand, H., Solberg, E. J. & Storaas, T. 2009. Encounter frequencies between GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) and moose (Alces alces) in a Scandinavian wolf territory. Ecological Research 24 (3):547-557.
  • Farley, S. 2003. Impacts of heavy hunting pressure on the density and demographics of brown bear populations in Southcentral Alaska. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Final Performance Report. Grants W-24-4 through W-33-1. Project 4.26. Juneau, Alaska, USA. (PDF file 44 K)
  • Ferguson, S. H., A. R. Bisset, and F. Messier. 2000. The influences of density on growth and reproduction in moose (Alces alces). Wildlife Biology 6:31–39.
  • Franzmann, A. W., and C. C. Schwartz. 1985. Moose twinning rates: a possible population condition assessment. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:394–396.
  • Franzmann, A. W., and C. C. Schwartz. 1986. Black bear predation on moose calves in highly productive versus marginal moose habitats on the Kenai Peninsula. Alces 22:139–153. (PDF file 179 K)
  • Franzmann, A. W., C. C. Schwartz, and R. O. Peterson. 1980. Moose calf mortality in summer on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 44:764–768. (PDF file 130 K)
  • Gasaway, W. C., R. D. Boertje, D. V. Grangaard, D. G. Kelleyhouse, R. O. Stephenson, and D. G. Larsen. 1992. The role of predation in limiting moose at low densities in Alaska and Yukon and implications for conservation. Wildlife Monographs 120:1–59. (PDF file 1,472 K)
  • Gasaway, W. C., S. D. DuBois, R. D. Boertje, D. J. Reed, and D. T. Simpson. 1989. Response of radio-collared moose to a large burn in central Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:325–329.
  • Gasaway, W. C., R. O. Stephenson, J. L. Davis, P. E. K. Shepherd, and O. E. Burris. 1983. Interrelationships of wolves, prey, and man in interior Alaska. Wildlife Monographs 84:1–50. (PDF file 1,413 K)
  • Gundersen H., Solberg, E. J., Wabakken, P., Storaas, T., Zimmermann, B., & Andreassen, H. P. 2008. Three approaches to estimate wolf Canis lupus predation rates on moose Alces alces populations. European Journal of Wildlife Research 54:335–346.
  • Hayes, R. D., R. Farnell, R. M. P. Ward, J. Carey, M. Dehn, G. W. Kuzyk, A. M. Baer, C. L. Gardner, and M. O’Donoghue. 2003. Experimental reduction of wolves in the Yukon: ungulate responses and management implications. Wildlife Monographs 152:1–35. (PDF file 1,507 K)
  • Hechtel, J. L. 1991. Population dynamics of black bear populations, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Final Report to the U.S. Army. Natural Research Report. 91-2, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA.
  • Hinkes, M. T., and L. J. Van Daele. 1996. Population growth and status of the Nushagak Peninsula caribou herd in Southwest Alaska following reintroduction, 1988–1993. Rangifer, Special Issue 9:301–309.
  • Jenkins, K. J. 1996. Population dynamics of the Mentasta Caribou Herd, Wrangell–St Elias National Park and Preserve: Progress Report and Preliminary Assessment. WRST Research and Management. Report 95-1. US National Park Service, Anchorage, Alaska.
  • Keech, M. A. 2005. Factors limiting moose at low density in Unit 19D East, and response of moose to wolf control. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Final Research Performance Report. Grants W 27-5 and W-33-1 through W 33-3. Project 1.58. Juneau, USA. (PDF file 48 K)
  • Keech, M. A. 2012. (PDF 877 kB) Response of moose and their predators to wolf reduction and short-term bear removal in a portion of Unit 19D. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration, Final Wildlife Research Report ADF&G/DWC/WRR-2012-7, Grants W-33-4 through W-33-10, Project 1.62. Fairbanks, Alaska.
  • Keech, M. A., R. D. Boertje, R. T. Bowyer, and B. W. Dale. 1999. Effects of birth weight on growth of young moose: do low-weight neonates compensate? Alces 35:51–57.
  • Keech, M. A., R. T. Bowyer, J. M. Ver Hoef, R. D. Boertje, B. W. Dale, and T. R. Stephenson. 2000. Life-history consequences of maternal condition in Alaskan moose. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:450–462.
  • Keech, M. A., M. S. Lindberg, R. D. Boertje, P. Valkenburg, B. D. Taras, T. A. Boudreau, and K. B. Beckmen. 2011. (PDF 371 kB) Effects of predator treatments, individual traits, and environment on moose survival in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 75:1361–1380.
  • Larsen, D. G., D. A. Gauthier, and R. L. Markel. 1989. Causes and rate of moose mortality in the southwest Yukon. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:548–557. (PDF file 264 K)
  • Larsen, D. G., and R. M. P. Ward. 1995. Moose population characteristics in the Frances Lake and North Canol areas. Yukon Fish and Wildlife Branch Report PR-95-1, Whitehorse, Canada.
  • Lenart, E. A. 1997. Effects of weather on caribou forage productivity and nutrition within the range of the Chisana Herd. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Final Report. Grants W-24-3, W-24-4, and W-24-5. Study 3.41. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Lenart, E. A., R. T. Bowyer, J. Ver Hoef, and R. W. Ruess. 2002. Climate change and caribou: effects of summer weather on forage. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:664–678.
  • McCullough, D. R. 1979. The George Reserve deer herd, population ecology of a K-selected species. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor.
  • McNay, M. E. 2002. Investigation of wolf population response to intensive trapping in the presence of high ungulate biomass. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Final Performance Report. Grant W-27-1 to 5. Study 14.17. Juneau, Alaska. (PDF file 44 K)
  • Mech, L. D., L. G. Adams, T. J. Meier, J. W. Burch, and B. W. Dale. 1998. The wolves of Denali. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Miller, S. D. 1994. Black bear reproduction and cub survivorship in south-central Alaska. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9:263–273.
  • Miller, S. D. 1997. Impacts of heavy hunting pressure on the density and demographics of brown bear populations in southcentral Alaska. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Final Report. Grants W-24-2, W-24-3, W-24-4. Study 4.26. Juneau, Alaska, USA.
  • Miller, S. D., and W. B. Ballard. 1992. Analysis of an effort to increase moose calf survivorship by increased hunting of brown bears in south-central Alaska. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20:445–454.
  • Miller, S. D., E. F. Becker, and W. B. Ballard. 1987. Black and brown bear density estimates using modified capture–recapture techniques in Alaska. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 7:23–35.
  • Miller, S. M., S. D. Miller, and D. W. McCollum. 1998. Attitudes toward and relative value of Alaskan brown and black bears to resident voters, resident hunters, and nonresident hunters. Ursus 10:357–376.
  • National Research Council. 1997. Wolves, bears, and their prey in Alaska. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Peterson, R. O., J. D. Woolington, and T. N. Bailey. 1984. Wolves of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Wildlife Monographs 88:1–52.
  • Rausch, R. A., R. J. Somerville, and R. H. Bishop. 1974. Moose management in Alaska. Naturaliste Canadien 101:705–721.
  • Regelin, W. L., P. Valkenburg, and R. D. Boertje. 2005. Management of large predators in Alaska. Wildlife Biology in Practice 1:77–85. (PDF file 133 K)
  • Sand, H., C. Wikenros, P., Wabakken, & O. Liberg. 2006. Wolf (Canis lupus) hunting success on moose (Alces alces): effects of hunting group size, snow depth and age of breeding wolves. Animal Behaviour 72:781-789.
  • Sand, H., Wikenros, C., Wabakken, P., & Liberg, O. 2006. Cross continental differences in patterns of predation: Will naïve moose in Scandinavia ever learn? Proceedings B, The Royal Society of London, doi:10.1098/rspb2005.3447.
  • Sand, H., Zimmermann, B., Wabakken, P., Andrén, H. & Pedersen, H.C. 2005. Using GPS technology and GIS cluster analyses to estimate kill rates in wolf ungulate ecosystems. – Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:914-925.
  • Schwartz, C. C. 1998. Reproduction, natality, and growth. Pages 141–171 in A. W. Franzmann and C. C. Schwartz, editors. Ecology and Management of the North American Moose. Smithsonian Institution Press, London.
  • Schwartz, C. C., and A. W. Franzmann. 1991. Interrelationship of black bears to moose and forest succession in the northern coniferous forest. Wildlife Monographs 113:1–58. (PDF file 1,532 K)
  • Schwartz, C. C., J. E. Swenson, and S. D. Miller. 2003. Large carnivores, moose and humans: a changing paradigm of predator management in the 21st century. Alces 39:41–63.
  • Seaton, C. T., T. F. Paragi, R. D. Boertje, K. Kielland, S. DuBois, and C. L. Fleener. 2011. (PDF 483 kB) Browse biomass removal and nutritional condition of moose Alces alces. Wildlife Biology 17:55–66.
  • Sellers, R. A. 1999. Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd caribou management progress report of survey–inventory activities. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Grants W-24-5 and W-27-1. Study 3.0. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Sellers, R. A., P. Valkenburg, R. L. Zarnke, and R. C. Squibb. 1998a. Natality and early calf mortality of Northern Alaska Peninsula caribou, 1998. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage. Final Report. Cooperative Agreement 98-079. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Sellers, R. A., P. Valkenburg, B. W. Dale, R. C. Squibb, and M. Roy. 2000. Fall sex/age composition, genetic screening and collaring of Northern and Southern Alaska Peninsula herds, 1999. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage. Final Report. Cooperative Agreement 00-020. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Sellers, R. A., P. Valkenburg, R. Squibb, B. W. Dale, and R. L. Zarnke. 2003. Natality and early calf mortality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds. Rangifer, Special Issue 14:161–166. (PDF file 201 K)
  • Sellers, R. A., P. Valkenburg, R. L. Zarnke, R. C. Squibb, and M. Roy. 1998b. Fall sex/age composition, body condition, disease screening, and collaring of Northern and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds, 1998. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage. Final Report. Cooperative Agreement 99-014. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Spindler, M. A. 1992. Wolf distribution, movements, abundance, and predation on the Koyukuk/Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Progress Report 92-4, Galena, Alaska, USA.
  • Stephenson, R. O., W. B. Ballard, C. A. Smith, and K. Richardson. 1995. Wolf biology and management in Alaska, 1981–1992. Pages 43–54 in L. N. Carbyn, S. H. Fritts, and D. R. Seip, editors. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Canadian Circumpolar Institute, Occasional Publication No. 35.
  • Stewart, R. R, E. H. Kowal, R. Beaulieu, and T. W. Rock. 1985. The impact of black bear removal on moose calf survival in east-central Saskatchewan. Alces 21:403–418. (PDF file 182 K)
  • Swenson, J. E., B. Dahle, H. Busk, O. Opseth, T. Johansen, A. Söderberg, K. Wallin, and G. Cederlund (2007) Predation on moose calves by European brown bears. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1993-1997.
  • Testa, J. W. 2004. Population dynamics and life-history tradeoffs of moose (Alces alces) in south-central Alaska. Ecology 85:1439–1452. (PDF file 269 K)
  • Testa, J. W., and G. P. Adams. 1998. Body condition and adjustments to reproductive effort in female moose (Alces alces). Journal of Mammalogy 79:1345–1354.
  • Titus, K. 2007. Intensive management of wolves and ungulates in Alaska. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference. 72:366-377. (PDF file 569 K)
  • Tobey, R. W. 1993. Nelchina caribou herd management progress report of survey–inventory activities. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Grants W-23-5 and W-24-1. Study 3.0. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Tobey, R. W. 1999. Nelchina caribou herd management progress report of survey–inventory activities. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Grants W-24-5 and W-27-1. Study 3.0. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Tobey, R. W. 2003. Unit 13 brown bear management report. Pages 141–151 in C. Healy, editor. Brown bear management report of survey and inventory activities 1 July 2000–30 June 2002. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Juneau, Alaska, USA.
  • Tobey, R. W. 2004. Unit 13 moose management report. Pages 147–160 in C. Healy, editor. Moose management report of survey and inventory activities 1 July 2001–30 June 2003. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Juneau, Alaska, USA.
  • Valkenburg, P. 1993. Investigation of limiting and regulating factors in the Delta Caribou Herd. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Progress Report. Grant W-24-1. Study 3.37. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Valkenburg, P. 1997. Investigation of regulating and limiting factors in the Delta caribou herd. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Research Final Report. Grant W-24-5. Study 3.42. Juneau, Alaska.
  • Valkenburg, P. 1998. Herd size, distribution, harvest, management issues, and research priorities relevant to caribou herds in Alaska. Rangifer, Special Issue 10:125–130.
  • Valkenburg, P. 2002. Stumbling towards enlightenment: understanding caribou dynamics. Alces 37(2):457–474.
  • Valkenburg, P., J. L. Davis, and D. J. Reed. 1988. Distribution of radiocollared caribou from the Delta and Yanert herds during calving. Proceedings third North American caribou workshop. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Technical Bulletin 8:14–25.
  • Valkenburg, P., J. L. Davis, J. M. Ver Hoef, R. D. Boertje, M. E. McNay, R. M. Eagan, D. J. Reed, C. L. Gardner, and R. W. Tobey. 1996. Population decline in the Delta caribou herd with reference to other Alaskan herds. Rangifer, Special Issue 9:53–62. (PDF file 332 K)
  • Valkenburg, P., K. W. Pitcher, D. J. Reed, E. F. Becker, J. R. Dau, D. N. Larsen, and J. L. Davis. 1991. Density-dependent responses in mandible length, calving date, and recruitment in three Alaskan caribou herds. Pages 288–299 in C. E. Butler and S. P. Mahoney, editors. Proceedings 4th North American Caribou Workshop. Newfoundland and Labrador Wildlife Division, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada.
  • Valkenburg, P., R. A. Sellers, R. C. Squibb, J. D. Woolington, A. R. Aderman, and B. W. Dale. 2003. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Rangifer, Special Issue 14:131–142.
  • Valkenburg, P., T. H. Spraker, M. T. Hinkes, L. H. Van Daele, R. W. Tobey, and R. A. Sellers. 2000. Increases in body weight and nutritional status of transplanted Alaskan caribou. Rangifer, Special Issue 12:133–138.
  • Valkenburg, P., R. W. Tobey, B. W. Dale, B. D. Scotton, and J. M. Ver Hoef. 2003. Body size of female calves and natality rates of known-aged females in two adjacent Alaskan caribou herds, and implications for management. Rangifer, Special Issue 14:203–209.
  • Valkenburg, P, M E McNay, and B W Dale. 2004. Calf mortality and population growth in the Delta caribou herd after wolf control. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(3):746-756. (PDF file 160 K)
  • Valkenburg, P, R A Sellers, RC Squibb, JD Woolington, AR Aderman, and BD Dale. 2003. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. RangiferSpecial Issue 14:131-142. (PDF file 331 K)
  • Valkenburg, P, RW Tobey, BW Dale, BD Scotton, and JM Ver Hoef. 2003. Body size of female calves and natality rates of known-aged females in two adjacent caribou herds, and implications for management. RangiferSpecial Issue 14:203-209.
  • Valkenburg P, MA Keech, RA Sellers, RW Tobey, and BW Dale. 2002. Investigation of Regulating and limiting factors in the Delta Caribou Herd. ADF&G, Final Research Report, Study 3.42. Juneau. 105pp. (PDF file 558 K)
  • Van Ballenberghe, V. 1980. Utility of multiple equilibrium concepts applied to population dynamics of moose. Proceedings of the North American moose conference and workshop 16:571–586.
  • Van Ballenberghe, V. 1987. Effects of predation on moose numbers: a review of recent North American studies. Swedish Wildlife Research Supplement 1:431–460.
  • Van Ballenberghe, V. 2006. Predator control, politics, and wildlife conservation in Alaska. Alces 42:1–11.
  • Whitten, K. R., G. W. Garner, F. J. Mauer, and R. B. Harris. 1992. Productivity and early calf survival in the Porcupine Caribou Herd. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:201–212.
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