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Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae)
Federally Threatened

wood bison Wood bison inhabited Alaska for thousands of years prior to the 1900s. Unregulated hunting and changes in habitat distribution resulted in their extirpation in Alaska, and by 1900 only a few hundred individuals remained in all of North America. In 1970, wood bison in Canada were listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Conservation Act, the predecessor to the Endangered Species Act (ESA). When the ESA was passed in 1973, the wood bison was added to the List of Threatened and Endangered Species. There are no wood bison in the wild in Alaska, nor in the remainder of the United States.

Through conservation efforts and management in Canada, the population of 300 wood bison has grown to over 4,000 disease-free animals, with a total of about 10,000 animals in the wild. Canada downlisted wood bison from endangered to threatened status in 1988. In May 2012, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) reclassified wood bison from endangered to threatened status under the ESA. See the full report (PDF 320 kB).

The listing of the wood bison under the ESA has complicated efforts to re-introduce this species into Alaska. The State, in cooperation with the USFWS is attempting to designate wood bison in Alaska as a nonessential experimental population under the ESA and develop a special rule that would delegate primary management authority to the State and which would define permissible takes. This would provide for greater flexibility in managing reintroduced populations. Wood bison will not be released into the wild until the nonessential experimental population designation and associated special rule is made.

For general information on Wood Bison, see the Wood Bison species profile page.